10 Jun
2024

Throughput Calculation in Manufacturing: Maximizing Efficiency

Calculating Throughput can be more complicated than you might think! Learn some tips and tricks here.

Throughput
Calcul du débit dans la fabrication : Maximiser l'efficacité

In manufacturing, efficiency is paramount. Understanding and maximizing throughput, the rate at which your shop floor produces products, is central to achieving this efficiency. Throughput calculation is not merely a matter of determining raw output; it involves a nuanced consideration of various factors that influence production rates and overall effectiveness. This article delves into the intricacies of throughput calculation, providing insights into key concepts, calculation methods, strategies for accuracy, optimization techniques and real-world applications.

Understanding Throughput in Manufacturing

Key Concepts

Throughput in manufacturing refers to the amount of material or product that a manufacturing process can produce within a given period of time such as an 8-hour shift. It is a critical metric for evaluating the efficiency of a manufacturing process. Key concepts in understanding throughput include:

  • Cycle Time: The total time required to complete one cycle of an operation or process.
  • Capacity: The maximum amount of output that a system can produce under ideal conditions.
  • Throughput Time: The total time it takes for a product to move through the entire production process, including processing and waiting times.
  • Constraint: Any factor that limits the capacity or throughput of a system, such as equipment availability, slowdowns, process inefficiencies, or resource constraints.

Throughput Variables: Machines and Lines

A company’s throughput is influenced by various variables, including the efficiency of individual machines and production lines. Factors such as machine speed, setup time, maintenance intervals, and downtime significantly impact throughput. Understanding these variables is essential for accurate throughput calculation and optimization efforts.

Calculating Throughput

Factors Influencing Throughput

Several factors influence throughput in manufacturing:

  • Machine Downtime: Unplanned equipment breakdowns or scheduled maintenance can interrupt production and reduce throughput.
  • Production Queues: Bottlenecks caused by excessive work-in-progress inventory or inefficient process flows can impede throughput.
  • Process Efficiency: The effectiveness of production processes, including setup times, changeovers, and workflow design, directly affects throughput.
  • Worker Productivity: Employee skill levels, training, and workload management play a crucial role in maintaining optimal throughput rates.

Practical Example of Throughput Calculation

Throughput calculation involves analyzing production data to determine the rate at which products are being manufactured. Practical examples include:

  • Batch Processing: Calculating the number of units produced per batch and the time taken to complete each batch.
  • Continuous Production: Measuring the output rate over a specified time period, accounting for any interruptions or downtime.
  • Line Efficiency: Assessing the performance of production lines by comparing actual output to theoretical capacity.

The throughput formula is the average number of units produced on a machine, line, unit, or plant over a given time. However, there are several aspects of a manufacturing plant that come into play when measuring throughput. We can think about the throughput of an individual machine as we can think about the throughput of an entire manufacturing line. Both play a crucial role with each other, and both are important to understand and analyze. Before we do so, it is important to know that there will always be common and special causes that affect our business.

Manufacturing lines do not run at 100% efficiency non-stop. There's downtime caused by either equipment malfunction or unexpected situations such as a winter storm that causes the production plant to shut down temporarily. We must consider these cases when calculating throughput, as it takes time for equipment to be repaired or start up again after a production halt.

For example, let's calculate a machine’s uptime percentage, which is the fraction of the mean time a machine runs between failures and halts over the mean total time. The mean total time includes both running time and time for repairs and restarts after a halt.

Uptime% = Running time / Total time

If a brewery line shuts down for 5 minutes every hour due to a defect, its uptime percentage would be:

60 minutes / 60 minutes + 5 minutes

60 minutes / 65 minutes

= 0.923 → 92.3%

If the brewery's full capacity is 6,000 cans per hour, the adjusted throughput considering uptime is:

6,000 cans/hour * 0.923 = 5,538 cans/hour

This adjustment shows that downtime can significantly impact throughput, offering valuable insights into operations.

Calculating Throughput for Multiple Machines

Let’s extend the example to a brewery line with three machines: a canning machine, a labeling machine, and a packaging machine.

  • Canning Machine: Full capacity is 6,000 cans per hour with 92.3% efficiency.
  • Labeling Machine: Labels 5,300 cans per hour with 98% efficiency.
  • Packaging Machine: Packages 6,100 cans per hour with 93% efficiency.

Calculating the actual throughput of each machine:

  • Labeler: 5,300 cans/hour * 0.98 = 5,194 cans/hour
  • Packager: 6,100 cans/hour * 0.93 = 5,673 cans/hour

Overall Line Efficiency

Machines do not have simultaneous downtimes, so the production line's efficiency must consider this:

0.923*0.98* 0.93 = 0.859 or 85.9%

The line's throughput rate is determined by the bottleneck, the slowest machine. Here, it is the labeler at 5,194 cans/hour.

Calculating the overall throughput:

5,194 * 0.859 = 4,462 cans/hour

Accounting for Defective Products

To get a realistic throughput, exclude defective products. If 250 out of 4,462 cans are defective, calculate the process yield:

Process yield = 4,462/(4,462 + 250) = 0.9469

94.69% of our cans are good to sell. We multiply this fraction by our throughput of 4,462 cans/hour to get the accurate throughput that the brewery will profit from.

Throughput = Throughput rate * Process Yield

= 4,462 cans/hour * 0.9469

= 4,225 cans/hour

Optimizing Your Throughput

Improving Machine and Line Efficiency

Enhancing machine and line efficiency is key to maximizing throughput. Strategies include:

  • Equipment Upgrades: Investing in advanced machinery with higher throughput capabilities and improved reliability.
  • Automation: Implementing automation technologies to streamline production processes and reduce manual labor requirements.
  • Training and Development: Providing ongoing training to employees to enhance their skills and optimize machine utilization.

Quality Control and Its Impact on Throughput

Maintaining high-quality standards is essential for optimizing throughput without compromising product quality. Strategies include:

  • Statistical Process Control: Implementing SPC techniques to monitor and control production processes and ensure consistent quality.
  • Quality Assurance Systems: Establishing robust quality management systems to prevent defects and rework, thereby minimizing production delays.
  • Feedback Loops: Using customer feedback and quality metrics to identify areas for improvement and implement corrective actions.

Considerations in Throughput Calculation

Quality Adjustments

When calculating throughput, it is essential to account for variations in product quality that may significantly affect production rates. Quality monitoring plays a critical role in identifying and quantifying these variations by detecting defects, inconsistencies, or deviations from specifications early in the production process. If a substantial portion of the output requires rework or is deemed scrap, the effective throughput decreases, as time and resources are diverted away from producing saleable units to addressing quality issues. Furthermore, frequent quality-related stoppages or downtime disrupt the flow of production, further reducing the overall throughput. By integrating quality monitoring into the throughput calculation, manufacturers can adjust their metrics to reflect the real-world impact of quality on production efficiency. This holistic approach ensures that the calculated throughput accurately represents the net productive output, accounting for losses due to quality-related interventions. Consequently, this leads to more precise planning, better resource allocation, and strategies aimed at minimizing quality issues, ultimately enhancing the overall efficiency and reliability of the manufacturing process.

The Role of Production Monitoring and Manufacturing Analytics

Production monitoring and manufacturing analytics play a pivotal role in calculating throughput by providing real-time insights and data-driven analysis into the entire production process. These tools allow for the continuous tracking of machinery performance, workforce efficiency, and material flow, enabling the identification of bottlenecks and inefficiencies that impede optimal production rates. Through detailed data collection and sophisticated analytics, manufacturers can gain a comprehensive understanding of production dynamics, leading to more accurate predictions of throughput. This, in turn, facilitates informed decision-making, helps streamline operations and enhance productivity, ultimately ensuring that production goals are met with greater consistency and efficiency.

 

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